Latest update : 6 March.

The section on ESL is divided in four main subsections. The first subsection provides an insight in EU and national context of ESL, including its policy framework and development, as well a specific situation regarding ESL in TITA consortium countries. These insights are important to understand the current situation regarding ESL in the countries participating in the TITA project as well for exploiting TITA results to the EU level and the level of other European countries. Since reasons for ESL differ widely from country to country and also within regions, policies to reduce ESL need to be adjusted to the specific situation within a local area, region or country.

In the second subsection a special emphasis is devoted to the understanding of interplay of different factors related to ESL. Early school leavers are a heterogeneous group and factors to leave education prematurely differ widely. Theoretical assumptions (e.g. Dale, 2010) argue that ESL is a result of the interaction between individual (home/family/community) based factors, school-based and systemic factors. All these factors in the TITA scientific base are scientifically elaborated and highlighted also by the results of secondary analysis of international comparative studies in education (e.g. PISA – Programme for international student assessment).

The third subsection lies on the assumption that knowing and understanding ESL factors is crucial for developing prevention activities for ESL. In the TITA scientific base selected factors as teaching style, teacher-teacher and teacher-student cooperation, students’ social and civic competences, mental health, home environment, career guidance and physical activity are elaborated in terms of their prevention role in ESL.

In the fourth subsection, problem of ESL and its (negative) consequences for individual and modern societies are elaborated in order to understand, why ESL is worthwhile to prevent.