Interplay of factors that contribute to ESL at individual/family level

mercredi 11 février 2015, par Maša Vidmar

Mots clés : décrochage scolaire 

ESL is a process rather than a one-off event (European Commission, 2010) and in very many cases the route to ESL begins before the child goes to school (NESSE, 2010). Eurofound report (n.d.) states that ESLrs are a heterogeneous category that contains a variety of subgroups (no single ’profile’ can be established). The aim of this article is to show that variety of individual and family factors can contribute to becoming ESLer as well as to show that these relations are not straightforward. The article reviews the empirical research in the field.

Early school leavers are in general more likely to be exposed to multiple disadvantages at different levels that usually interact (European Commission, 2011). Research shows that social and economic background is very important factor (NESSE, 2010). This most commonly refers to unemployment of parents, low household income, and low level of parental education. Students with low socio-economic status (SES), migrant or minority background and males are at higher risk for ESL than their counterparts ; however, the effect of gender and migrant background is not as straightforward as effect of SES. In addition, early school leavers are more likely to come from vulnerable groups (e.g. the disabled), to have had a history of disengagement from school, to have experienced high rates of mobility, to be concentrated in particular areas (so called ’disadvantaged areas’). Moreover, behavior (particularly aggressive) and poor grades (early experience of schooling) during first grade is linked to higher risk of ESL. Parent-child relationship, parental involvement in children’s education, congruency of social and behavioral expectations between home and school context as well as parental aspirations and expectations can play a role. Moreover, the participation in high-quality ECEC participation is seen as protective factor (PPMI, 2014).

The review of factors that contribute to ESL helps understand how highly versatile and individualized measures and initiatives tackling ESL should be to address the different needs of (potential) ESLrs.

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